Abel, N., Baxter, J., Campbell, A., Cleugh, H., Fargher, J., Lambeck, R., Prinsley, R., Prosser, M., Reid, R., Revell, G., Schmidt, C., Stirzaker, R., Thorburn, P. 1997. Design principles for farm forestry: a guide to assist farmers to decide where to place trees and farms plantations on farms. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
Abukashawa, S., M. Abdelkreim, and M.T. Ibrahim. 2016. Studies on camel’s feeding and utilization of camel’s milk in Buttana Area, Gaderif State, Sudan. Advances in Diary Research 3(3): 1–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-888x.1000141.
Ahmad, S., M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi, M. Zaman, and M. Tariq. 2010. Economic importance of camel: Unique alternative under crisis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 30(4): 191–197.
Aleper, D.K., and J. Lotyang. 2006. State of the environment report for Moroto District 2006.
Amante, D.G. 2014. Traditional camel management as an adaptation strategy to ecological changes: The case of Karrayyuu Oromo of Ethiopia. Masters thesis, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, pp. 88.
Amin, A.S., K.A. Abdoun, and A.M. Abdelatif. 2011. Observations on the seasonal browsing and grazing behaviour of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in southern Darfur-Sudan. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences 1(4): 213–216.
Angassa, A., and G. Oba. 2008. Effects of management and time on mechanisms of bush encroachment in Southern Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology 46(2): 186–196.
Angassa, A., and G. Oba. 2010. Effects of grazing pressure, age of enclosures and seasonality on bush cover dynamics and vegetation composition in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 74(1): 111–120.
Asase, A., K. Ofori‐Frimpong, and P.K. Ekpe. 2010. Impact of cocoa farming on vegetation in an agricultural landscape in Ghana. African Journal of Ecology 48(2): 338–346.
Awoke, K., S.M. Ali, and M. Hussein. 2015. Assessment of challenges and opportunities of traditional camel calf management practices in Fafen Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. International Journal of Current Science and Technology 3(6): 20–27.
BakamaNume, B.B. 2010. A contemporary geography of Uganda. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.
Barrow, E. 1988. Trees and pastoralists: The case of the Pokot and Turkana. Social Forestry Network paper 6b, 24. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Belay, K., F. Beyene, and W. Manig. 2005. Coping with drought among pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Rural Development 28(2): 185–210.
Bonkoungou, E. 2001. Biodiversity in drylands: Challenges and opportunities for conservation and sustainable land use. Nairobi: United Nations Development Programme.
Chimsa, M., et al. 2013. Forage preference of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries) in eastern Ethiopia. The Journal Animal Plant Science 25(5): 1236–1241.
Dereje, M., and P. Udén. 2005. The browsing dromedary camel: I. Behaviour, plant preference and quality of forage selected. Animal Feed Science and Technology 121(3): 297–308.
Desalegn, T., and Y. Mohammed. 2012. Preferably browsed forage species by camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their mineral contents in Jijiga district, Eastern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 24(3).
Dokata, M.D. 2014. Factors influencing camel milk production in central division of Isiolo District: A case of three camel milk women self help groups in Isiolo County, Kenya, MA dissertation. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Dorges, B., and J. Heucke. 1995. One humped camel Camelus dromedarius. In the mammals of Australia, 2nd ed, 718–720. Sydney: Reed.
Dorges, B., and J. Heucke. 2003. Demonstration of ecologically sustainable management of camels on aboriginal and pastoral land. Canberra: Final report on project no. 200046 of the National Heritage Trust.
Egeru, A. 2014. Assessment of forage dynamics under variable climate in Karamoja sub-region of Uganda. PhD dissertation, University of Nairobi, p 250.
Egeru, A., O. Wasonga, J. Kyagulanyi, G.M. Majaliwa, L. MacOpiyo, and J. Mburu. 2014. Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Pastoralism 4(1): 1–21.
Egeru, A., B. Barasa, H. Makuma-Massa, and P. Nampala. 2015a. Piosphere syndrome and rangeland degradation in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Resources and Environment 5(3): 73–89.
Egeru, A., O. Wasonga, L. Macopiyo, J. Mburu, and M.G. Majaliwa. 2015b. Abundance and diversity of native forage species in pastoral Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. African Study Monographs 36(4): 261–296. http://doi.org/10.14989/202827.
Elhadi, Y.A., D.M. Nyariki, and O.V. Wasonga. 2015. Role of camel milk in pastoral livelihoods in Kenya: Contribution to household diet and income. Pastoralism 5(1): 8.
El-Keblawy, A., T. Ksiksi, and H. El Alqamy. 2009. Camel grazing affects species diversity and community structure in the deserts of the UAE. Journal of Arid Environments 73(3): 347–354.
Evans, J.O., Simpkin, S.P. and Atkins, D.J., eds. 1995. Camel keeping in Kenya. Range Management Handbook of Kenya, 3 (8). Range Management Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development and Marketing.
Farah, Z. 2004. An introduction to the camel. In Milk and meat from the camel: handbook on products and processing, 15–22. Zurich: Hochshuleverlag AG ander ETH.
Flintan, F., B. Tache, and A. Eid. 2011. Rangeland fragmentation in traditional grazing areas and its impact on drought resilience of pastoral communities: Lessons from Borana, Oromia and Harshin, Somali Regional States, Ethiopia. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Gradé, J.T. 2008. Ethnoveterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Northern Uganda, PhD dissertation, 220. Belgium: Ghent University.
Gwali, S., P. Okullo, D. Hafashimana, and D.M. Byabashaija. 2010. Diversity and composition of trees and shrubs in Kasagala forest: A semiarid savannah woodland in Central Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48(1): 111–118.
Hesse, C. and Cotula, L. 2006. Climate change and pastoralists: Investing in people to respond to adversity. Sustainable Development Opinion, IIED. Retrieved from: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/11059IIED.pdf.
Iqbal, A., and B.B. Khan. 2001. Feeding behaviour of camel. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 38: 58–63.
Kagunyu, A.W., and J. Wanjohi. 2014. Camel rearing replacing cattle production among the Borana community in Isiolo County of Northern Kenya, as climate variability bites. Pastoralism 4(1): 1–5.
Kagunyu, A.F., and J.G. Wanjohi. 2015. The emergency of Euphorbia tirucalli as drought feeds for camels in northern Kenya. Pastoralism 5(1): 1.
Katende, A.B., A. Birnie, and B. Tengnas. 1995. Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda: Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities, 710. Nairobi: Regional Soil Conservation Unit.
Kindt, R., and R. Coe. 2005. Tree diversity analysis: A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre/treesandmarkets/treediversityanalysis.asp.
Krätli, S., C. Huelsebusch, S. Brooks, and B. Kaufmann. 2013. Pastoralism: A critical asset for food security under global climate change. Animal Frontiers 3(1): 42–50.
Kuria, S.G., I.A. Tura, S. Amboga, and H.K. Walaga. 2012. Forage species preferred by camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their nutritional composition in North Eastern Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 24(8).
Laudadio, V., V. Tufarelli, M. Dario, M. Hammadi, M.M. Seddik, G.M. Lacalandra, and C. Dario. 2009. A survey of chemical and nutritional characteristics of halophytes plants used by camels in Southern Tunisia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41(2): 209–215.
Levine, S. 2010. What to do about Karamoja? Why Pastoralism is not the problem but the solution. In Karamoja livelihoods support strategy report, Food and Agricultire Organisation /European Civil Protection and Humanitaria Aid Operations.
MAAIF and UBOS. 2009. The National Livestock Census Report 2008. Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF). Kampala: Entebbe/Uganda Bureau of Statistics.
Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. African Journal of Aquatic Science 29(2): 285–286.
Malimbwi, R. and Mugasha, A. 2002. Reconnaissance timber inventory report for Handeni Hill Forest Reserve in Handeni District, Tanzania for the Tanga Catchment Forest Project, FORCONSULT, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
Malimbwi, R.E., D.T.K. Shemweta, E. Zahabu, S.P. Kingazi, J.Z. Katani, and D.A. Silayo. 2005. Inventory for Mvomeroand Morogoro Districts Tanzania. Morogoro: FOCONSULT.
McGahey, D., J. Davies, and E. Barrow. 2008. Pastoralism as conservation in the Horn of Africa: Effective policies for conservation outcomes in the drylands of Eastern Africa. Annals of Arid Zones 46(2): 353–377.
McLeod, S., and A. Pople. 2008. Modelling management options for management of feral camels in central Australia, DKCRC Research Report 48. Alice Springs: Desert Knowledge CRC.
Megersa, B., A. Markemann, A. Angassa, J.O. Ogutu, H.-P. Piepho, and A.V. Zárate. 2014a. Livestock diversification: An adaptive strategy to climate and rangeland ecosystem changes in southern Ethiopia. Human Ecology 42(4): 509–520.
Megersa, B., A. Markemann, A. Angassa, and A.V. Zárate. 2014b. The role of livestock diversification in ensuring household food security under a changing climate in Borana, Ethiopia. Food Security 6(1): 15–28.
Mubiru, D. 2010. Climate change and adaptation options in Karamoja. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. 1981. The camel (Camelus dromedarius): A bibliographical review, 129. Addis Ababa: International Livestock Centre for Africa, Monograph 5.
Nalule, S. 2010. Social management of rangelands and settlement in Karamoja. Kampala: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Oba, G. 2012. Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2(1): 1–25.
Oba, G., and L. Kaitira. 2006. Herder knowledge of landscape assessments in arid rangelands in northern Tanzania. Journal of Arid Environments 66(1): 168–186.
Roba, H.G., and G. Oba. 2008. Integration of herder knowledge and ecological methods for land degradation assessment around sedentary settlements in a sub-humid zone in northern Kenya. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 15(3): 251–264.
Rutagwenda, T., M. Lechner-Doll, H. Schwartz, W. Schultka, and W. Von Engelhardt. 1990. Dietary preference and degradability of forage on a semiarid thornbush savannah by indigenous ruminants, camels and donkeys. Animal Feed Science and Technology 31(3): 179–192.
Schwartz, H.J., Wolfgang, S. and Isaac, L. 2012. Feeding preferences of one-humped camels (
) on a semi-arid thornbush savannah in East Africa - adaptive advantages in view of increasing aridity of the environment, Third International Conference of the Society of Camelid Research(ISOCARD), Muskat, Oman.
Shaheen, G. 2009. Seasonal variation in nutritional and anti-nutritional components of native shrubs and trees grown in Hazargangi Chiltan National Park, Karkhasa and Zarghoon, PhD Dissertation, 2009. Quetta: University of the Bolochistan.
Stein, A., K. Gerstner, and H. Kreft. 2014. Environmental heterogeneity as a universal driver of species richness across taxa, biomes and spatial scales. Ecology Letters 17(7): 866–880.
Tadesse, G., T. Bekele, and S. Demissew. 2008. Dryland woody vegetation along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern escarpment of Welo, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 31(1): 43–54.
Tangus, J., E. MO, and M. Mokua. 2004. Influence of enterprise diversification on risk management amongst Samburu pastoralists of Kenya. Journal of Bussiness Management and Administration 2(1): 1–6.
Thornton, P., J. Van de Steeg, A. Notenbaert, and M. Herrero. 2009. The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know and what we need to know. Agricultural Systems 101(3): 113–127.
Timberlake, J. 1994. Vernacular names and uses of plants in northern Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 83(1): 31–69.
Tolera, A., and A. Abebe. 2007. Livestock production in pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems of Southern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 19(12): 4–7.
Turner, B.J. 1967. Ecological problems of cattle ranching in Combretum savanna woodland in Uganda. East African Geographical Review 5(1967): 9–19.
Wigrup, I. 2005. The role of indigenous knowledge in forest management. PhD Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.