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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Threat level from socio-environmental factors according to groups of farmers

From: The functional traits and threats to the Borgou cattle breed as perceived by farmers in Benin

Threats LargeZB (n = 23) SedPur (n = 35) SIntPur (n = 18) SmallZB (n = 29) Kruskal–Wallis test p-value and S
LGBB 4 (2)a
3.42 ± 1.47
4 (1.5)a
3.50 ± 1.27
3 (3)a
3.35 ± 1.33
4 (3)a
3.57 ± 1.43
0.91529 0.8217 NS
LVF 3 (2)a
2.82 ± 1.12
3 (1.5)a
2.83 ± 1.26
3 (1.75)a
2.85 ± 1.09
3 (2)a
2.90 ± 1.25
1.2248 0.7471 NS
CC 3 (1)a
2.82 ± 1.33
2 (1)a,b
2.26 ± 1.17
2 (1.75)b
1.92 ± 1.14
2 (2)a,b
2.24 ± 1.11
5.2194 0.032*
Conflicts 2 (1)a
2.42 ± 1.25
2 (2)a
2.13 ± 1.07
2 (1.5)a
2.21 ± 0.89
2 (1)a
2.30 ± 1.18
1.9582 0.5811 NS
UCB 4 (2)a
3.64 ± 1.47
4 (1.5)a
3.86 ± 1.04
4 (1)a
3.85 ± 1.16
4 (2)a
3.96 ± 1.04
2.3018 0.5122 NS
LbShort 2 (3)a
2.46 ± 1.34
3 (1)a
2.53 ± 1.00
2 (2)a
2.07 ± 0.91
2 (1)a
2.12 ± 1.05
4.2287 0.2378 NS
PMgm 2 (2)
2.82 ± 1.51a
2 (1)a
2.10 ± 1.18
3 (2)a
2.42 ± 1.39
2 (2)a
2.54 ± 1.37
2.4218 0.4896 NS
RedPL 3 (2.5)a
2.78 ± 1.39
3 (2)a
3.00 ± 1.33
3 (1.75)a
2.64 ± 1.21
3 (2)a
3.12 ± 1.11
0.68523 0.8767 NS
  1. Values in brackets are interquartile range (IQR)
  2. SIntPur semi-intensive purebred Borgou cattle farming, SedPur sedentary purebred Borgou cattle farming, LargeZB large transhumant of Zebu and Borgou cross-bred cattle farming, SmallZB small transhumant of Zebu and Borgou cross-bred cattle farming, S significance, LGBB lack of good breeding bulls, LVF lack of veterinary follow-up, UCB uncontrolled cross-breeding, PMgm poor management, RedPL reduction of pasture lands, LbShort labour shortage, CC climate change
  3. a,b,cThe values on the same row with different letters are significantly different at 5%
  4. *p < 0.05