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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Characteristics of cattle farm’s types

From: Characterization of smallholder cattle production systems in South-Kivu province, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

  Type1 Type2 Type3 Total
Agro-ecological zone (AEZ) (%)
 Medium altitude 42.8 97.7 1.4 50.2
 High altitude 57.2 2.3 98.6 49.8
Gender (%)
 Woman 4.5 3.5 13.7 5.1
 Man 95.5 96.5 86.3 94.9
Marital status (%)
 Divorced 0.5 0.0 1.4 0.5
 Married 99.0 100.0 98.6 99.2
 Widow 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.3
Schooling level (%)
 Illiterate 26.0 8.8 9.6 21.2
 Primary 29.4 33.3 28.8 30.1
 Secondary 42.0 56.7 56.2 46.1
 University 2.6 1.2 5.5 2.5
Main source of income (%)
 Livestock/agriculture 86.9 85.4 75.5 85.7
 Off-farm activity 13.1 14.6 24.6 14.3
Age (years) 47.3 ± 15.0 44.3 ± 13.2 41.0 ± 6.3 46.2 ± 14.2
Experience in cattle farming (years) 15.3 ± 11.3 14.3 ± 9.8 7.3 ± 7.0 14.4 ± 11.0
Grazing system (%)
 Herding 76.7 98.8 21.9 76.5
 Free range in paddocks 10.2 0.6 63.0 12.7
 Zero-grazing 13.1 0.6 15.1 10.8
Other livestock raised (%)
 Goat 91.8 68.4 100.0 87.8
 Pig 47.7 44.4 47.9 47.0
 Poultry 86.3 78.4 100.0 85.9
 Sheep 20.0 28.7 0.0 20.0
Cattle breeds raised (%)
 Local breedsa 99.8 99.4 100.0 99.8
 Exotic breedsb 8.6 15.2 65.8 14.7
 Hybrid breeds 9.2 20.5 65.8 16.2
Feed ration composition (%)
 Forages only 59.0 38.0 83.6 56.9
 Forages + nutritional supplements 41.0 62.0 16.4 43.1
Dietary supplements provision (%) 26.3 22.8 97.3 31.6
Prophylaxis practices (%)
 Pest control 40.9 49.7 78.4 46.0
 Vaccination 70.9 89.5 61.6 73.8
Owned land for livestock (%)
 Less than 5 ha 83.2 53.8 35.1 73.0
 5 ha and more 16.8 46.2 64.9 27.0
Main targeted livestock product (%)
 Milk 95.5 100.0 100.0 96.8
 Meat 72.5 98.8 98.6 79.1
Main farming objective (%)
 Savings 48.9 26.4 75.0 44.9
 Prestige 5.6 0.0 0.0 4.5
 Family subsistence 45.6 73.6 25.0 50.6
Main destination of products (%)
 Self-consumption 4.0 0.6 0.0 3.0
 Sales 96.0 99.4 100.0 97.0
Numerical composition of the herd
 Herd size range 1–40 20–126 41–182 1–182
 Herd size 6.3 ± 6.7 45.1 ± 19.4 78.1 ± 28.1 20.1 ± 26.8
 Number of suckler cows 1.2 ± 1.8 9.0 ± 4.9 37.2 ± 11.8 5.8 ± 10.9
 Number of pregnant cows 1.2 ± 1.5 6.2 ± 4.3 15.2 ± 12.1 3.4 ± 5.9
 Number of sires 1.0 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 2.4 5.9 ± 4.6 1.7 ± 2.3
 Number of heifers 1.0 ± 1.7 6.9 ± 4.7 4.7 ± 4.6 2.5 ± 3.8
 Number of young sires 0.4 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 2.6 6.4 ± 3.3 1.4 ± 2.5
 Total number of calves 0.8 ± 1.2 8.8 ± 4.9 4.3 ± 2.1 2.7 ± 4.1
 Number of male calves 0.4 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 2.4 1.9 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 1.9
 Number of female calves 0.4 ± 0.7 4.9 ± 3.1 2.4 ± 1.7 1.4 ± 2.4
Total number of cattle covered 3909 7704 5699 17,312
Corresponding proportion (%) 22.6 44.5 32.9 100.0
Production
 Weight of an adult (kg) 261.5 ± 56.2 311.3 ± 88.9 362.3 ± 87.3 280.4 ± 74.4
 Number of cattle sold annually 1.2 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.3
 Milk production/female/day (l) 1.8 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 2.9 2.9 ± 1.4
  1. aThe local cattle breeds encountered in South-Kivu are “Ankole cattle” and “N’Dama cattle”, with a stronger predominance of the “Ankole cattle”
  2. bThe exotic cattle breeds encountered in South-Kivu are predominantly the “Frisone dell Holstein cattle” and the “Brown Swiss cattle”