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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Productive parameters and herders’ response (N = 200) from the study area

From: Socio-economic constraints on camel production in Pakistan’s extensive pastoral farming

Parameters Response
Herd composition 70% herders have 2–3 adult animals and 2–3 calves
30% herders have 4–5 adult animals and 2–3 calves
Sex ratio 1–2 males and 2–3 females
Mean age of animals 15 years for she-camels, males were sold at an earlier age or at the age of 8 at the Religious Holy festival (Eid-ul-Adha)
Physiological status 80% females were with progeny, 90% of them were in the lactation stage of 6–18 months, 70% had given birth on average of four times
Birth weight 36–50 and 33–39 kg in male and female calves of Marecha, 34–48 and 32–38 kg in male and female calves of Barela
Milk yield 4–8 kg in Marecha and 5–9 kg in Barela
Housing conditions 35% of the camels were reared in completely open housing systems while 65% were in semi-open system
Feeding regimes 8–10 h grazing, fed with crop straws and household wastes
Watering regimes 2–3 times per day
General management practices 20% calves fed with colostrum immediately after birth, restricted suckling with two teats from the right side was performed in 90% calves, weaning age was found as 12–16 months in 70% cases, deworming was performed in 25% calves, mortality rate was 20%