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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Animals exchanged between stock friends in field sites by major categories (rounded %)

From: Friendship, kinship and social risk management strategies among pastoralists in Karamoja, Uganda

  Rupa Tapac
Cattle* (314**) Small stock (512) Cattle (150) Small stock (103)
Bridewealth transactions 45% 32% 65% 59%
Ceremony 0.3% 3% 0 7%
Dispute resolution 1% 0 0 0
Fertilize 0.6% 0 0 0
Friendship/kinship 31% 37% 23% 19%
Hunger 0.6% 4% 0.7% 2%
Herd 0.3% 5% 0 5%
Herd increase 0.6% 5% 0 0
Milking 2% 1% 3% 0
Ngarobai*** 11% 7% 3% 1%
Survival 8% 6% 3% 5%
Help during illness 0 1% 2% 3%
  1. *Includes donkeys and camels
  2. ** Total reported number of animals exchanged
  3. ***Decorated animals (Ngarobai, in a strict sense, refers to a band made from strips of animal skin that is tied around certain prized animals. Often, these are castrated male animals, although on rare occasions ngarobai animals can be female. These animals are decorated through branding and manipulation of horns (see also Dyson-Hudson 1966, p. 100). A ngarobai animal usually conforms to someone’s preference, be it the colour or pattern on the skin, or the shape of the animal. Men tend to know their friends’ preferences for animals, and if an animal of the colour or pattern admired by a friend is born into an individual’s herd, he will call for his friend to come and take it. The giver may also make a ngarobai band for this animal in anticipation of his friend’s imminent visit to claim this animal)