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Table 1 Camel ecotypes in Ethiopia

From: Camel production systems in Ethiopia: a review of literature with notes on MERS-CoV risk factors

Camel type Geographic distribution Colour and hair type Conformation Hump position Remarks
Jijiga camel 7° 10′ N to 9° 30′ N and 42° 00′ E to 43° 15′ E. Found in Jijiga and Fik zones of Somali Region Predominantly brown colour, medium hair length Predominantly large udder and teats, large milk vein and abdomen; milk type animal conformation of triangular shape Thoracic During dry season, they migrate 20 to 60 km to Kora, Daketa and Gobayle within their breeding tract
Hoor camel 5° 15′ N to 6° 44′ N and 43° E to 44° 16′ E. Found in Gode, Afder and Kebridahar zones of Somali Region Varies from brown to red and yellowish white, short hair length Small ear, large udder and teat size, long tail and large abdominal girth Thoracic Preferred because of their high milk production potential than other population in the breeding tract but considered less resistant to diseases, water scarcity and drought.
During dry season, the pastoralists together with their livestock migrate 50 to 100 km to Danan, Afder and Suben
Gelleb camel 5° 15′ N to 6° 44′ N and 43° E to 44° 16′ E. Found in Gode, Afder and Kebridahar zones of Somali Region Dominant brown and red coat colour, pigmented skin, muzzle and hoofs Longer in height, long tail, exceptionally wider hip and chest and long chest depth Thoracic and cervico-thoracic A crossbred between Hoor and Gelleb camel population is termed Aiden. It is said to be more tolerant to high temperature and scarcity of feed and water and resistant to disease than the two parents
Amibara camel 8° 58′ to 10° 00′ N and 40° 5′ to 40° 27′ E; from Awash to Gewane in the north and Bure-Mudaitu and Afambo in the east and west, respectively Brown to grey coat colour, short hair length Medium-sized udder and teats, smaller body size and weight and small abdominal and heart girth Thoracic and cervico-thoracic During trypanosomiasis infestation period and flooding of Awash River, the pastoralists together with their livestock migrate 30 to 50 km to the highland around Argoba area. During dry season and drought period, they migrate 50 to 200 km up to Shewa-Robit, Mollale, and keep their livestock adjacent to Awash River
Mille camel 11° 9′ to 13° 43′ N and 40° 25′ to 41° 22′ E. Distributed in areas from Mille to Chifra to the West and Dubti to the North Red to brown coat colour with short hair length Medium to long tail, small body size, large ear, long neck and long legs are the main features of this population; medium udder and teat sizes Thoracic During dry and drought periods, migration distances reach 100 to 250 km to zone 4 (Yalo and Teru districts) and zone 5 (Dalifage and Dawe districts) of Afar region and up to Bati in Amhara region
Liben camel 3° 30′ to 5° 30′ N and 39° 00′ to 41° 00′ E (in Liben and Borana zones) Brown, red, black and white Large ear size, large hoof circumferences with long legs, heavy body weight, large heart and abdominal girth, with wide hip and chest   Considered to be meat type animal. During dry/drought periods and occurrence of conflict, the population migrates 100 to 200 km to Konso and Gofa districts in SNNPR
Shinille camel 9° 30′ to 10° 30′ N and 41° 15′ to 42° 30′ E (Shinille Zone and eastern Oromia region) Grey and brown Short neck and large ears, small body size and light weight, muscled and prominent shoulder and rump, large udder and medium teat size Thoracic Appropriate to pull and carry heavy equipment, known for its aggressive character. During dry and drought periods, the camel population migrates 50 to 100 km out of their breeding tract to Chelenko, Daketa and Fafen in Jijiga area
  1. Adapted from Tadesse et al. (2014a, 2015a, b)