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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 5 Difference in income and expenditure among livelihood categories and household members (values are mean ± standard deviation)

From: Traditional gender inequalities limit pastoral women’s opportunities for adaptation to climate change: Evidence from the Afar pastoralists of Ethiopia

Annual income and expenditure Livelihood category Household members
Agrarian Pastoral Agro-pastoral Daughter Husband Son Wives
Income 979.17 ± 4868.69 1739.75 ± 5364.77* 1681.36 ± 6616.11* 59.46 ± 442.80 5398.36 ± 1058.92* 25.26 ± 218.12 272 ± 117.62
Expenditure 2872.45 ± 1648.36 3415.71 ± 1941.94* 4762.13 ± 1489.55* 2644.50 ± 1349 4641.43 ± 2377* 3785.72 ± 1728 3470.30 ± 1354
Expenditure for clothes 784.93 ± 494.44 908.73 ± 615.77* 908.91 ± 408.53* 760.2 ± 470 780.83 ± 389 872.20 ± 529 1036.14 ± 624
Expenditure for food 1720.83 ± 899.64 1864.88 ± 1452.36 3522.41 ± 2599.11* 1635.47 ± 1075 2974.73 ± 1640* 2743.32 ± 3132* 1973.32 ± 1021
Expense for health 273.19 ± 810.04 620.17 ± 1141.88* 415 ± 832.02 194.41 ± 408 950.85 ± 1462* 224.81 ± 568 405.02 ± 180.12
Expenditure for entertainment 8.51 ± 84.88 65.09 ± 265.98* 4.07 ± 40.98 2.20 ± 20 48.28 ± 233* 3.68 ± 43 56.40 ± 24
Expenditure for education 69.02 ± 154.94* 44.97 ± 131.20 71.02 ± 196.36* 153.26 ± 188.56* 0 ± 0.00 262.19 ± 272.52* 0 ± 0.00
  1. *Values across rows are significantly different (P<0.01)