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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Results of oral histories and focus groups

From: Historical perspectives on pastoralism and land tenure transformation in Ngamiland, Botswana: What are the policy and institutional lessons?

Codes from data Basic themes (ideas within organising themes) Organising themes (clusters of similar issues) Global themes (claims, arguments or assertions)
Critical historical factors In-migrations;
Settlement patterns; Okavango delta seasonal variations;
Opportunistic movement strategies
Biophysical factors; socio-economic and/or socio-political factors Historical land use practices
 • Ethnic pastoral groups, geopolitical and socio-cultural context
 • Traditional livestock management practices and strategic livestock mobility
 • Tsetse fly and eradication campaign
Tenure, transformation and climate variability Drought episodes; government policies; Services to Livestock Owners in Communal Areas (SLOCA) and TGLP including animal health policies Water reticulation through borehole drilling; expansion of usable grazing area Drought and land tenure transformation
 • Severe drought cycles
 • Communal land privatisation
Livestock diseases; FMD and access to markets; human-wildlife conflicts Increased fencing, FMD, implementation of FMD vaccination campaign, impacts of elephants on fences;
Opportunistic farming - dual grazing, farmers associations;
Stray animals, mostly not vaccinated and likely responsible for some of the spread of FMD;
Strained, working relationship between farmers and veterinary officials
Diseases, containment and control;
Exclusion from markets;
Consultations and cooperation
The era of livestock disease outbreaks
 • FMD is the most damaging to pastoralism, and the frequent outbreaks have systematically terminated beef exports from Ngamiland, a factor which significantly contributes to the continuous increase in livestock numbers in the communal areas as there is no offtake
Rangeland access;
Rangeland/ranch allocations and consultations;
Perspectives on veterinary cordon fences/animal health policies
Ranch allocation procedures;
Lack of voice in decisions about land use and allocation of land resources;
Traditional water ponds inaccessible, congestion between the fences and the lake, overgrazing and bush encroachment, wildlife migratory corridors between the lake and the sandveld blocked
Allocations and inequitable patterns of rangeland access and use;
Enclosure at the wildlife/livestock interface;
Perspectives on current land use and tenure
 • Rangeland access and control
  ◦ Complex allocation processes that exclude poor communal area pastoralists
 • Human-wildlife conflicts
 • Foot and mouth disease
 • Pastoralists vulnerability
  ◦ Lack of resilience to the occurrences of uncertain events: droughts, livestock diseases, exclusion from markets