Dependent variable

TREATMENT

Dummy, invasion by Prosopis

1 for invaded households, 0 otherwise

Outcome variables

EDUEXPE

Continuous, education expenditure

Birr^{a}

FOaNFEXPE

Continuous, food and nonfood expenditure

Birr

HEALEXPE

Health expenditure

Birr

CALINTAKE

Continuous, calorie per day per AE

Cal

AAILS

Continuous, average annual income from livestock sale

Birr

AAIMP

Continuous, average annual income from milk production

Birr

AAICP

Continuous, average annual income from crop production

Birr

AAFW/CP

Continuous, average annual income from fuel wood/charcoal production

Birr

OFFFARMIN

Continuous, average annual income from offfarm activities

Birr

Explanatory variables

Hypothesis

AGEHH

Continuous, age of household head

Number of years

(+)

EDUHH

Dummy, education of household head

1 if illiterate, 0 otherwise

(+)

TOTHH

Continuous, family size

Number of household members

(−)

TOTALAND

Continuous, landholding size

Ha

(−)

IRRGTN

Dummy for access to irrigation

1 if has access to irrigation, 0 if not

(+/−)

SEXHH

Dummy for sex of household head

1 if male, 0 otherwise

(+)

DEPENRATIO

Continuous, dependency ratio

Ratio

(−)

TLU

Continuous, livestockholding size

Tropical livestock units

(−)

CREDITACC

Dummy for access to rural credit service

1 if access to credit service, 0 if not

(+/−)

FARMEXPHH

Continuous

Number of years

(−)

SAFTYNT

Dummy for access to safety net programme

1 if a household head is engaged in safety net programme, 0 if not

(+)

DRTEF

Dummy for effect of drought

1 if a household’s income from livestock and crop production decreases when compared to the normal year and 0 if it remains the same

(+/−)

DISROAD

Continuous, distance from main road

Km

(−)
