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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Emergent innovations in the management of natural and social capital among group ranch pastoral communities in Laikipia, Kenya

From: Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Maasai Group Ranches, Kenya

Livelihood assets Emergent innovation Citations (n = 105) Percent frequency
Natural capital Pasture swap Trading grazing rights to non-members (agistment) 42 40
Private ranch - GR alliance 38 36
Expansion of Olokerii enclosuresa   
Resource use Diversification Sand mining 63 60
Wildlife and tourism 38 36
Cultivation 29 28
Manure sale 19 18
Charcoal making 17 16b
Buying and selling of livestock 82 78
Rearing of camels 13 12
Increasing small stock (sheep and goats) 84 80
Rearing of poultry 23 22
Social capital Human Children formal schooling 82 78
Hiring of Scouts/Rangers 32 30
  Wage remittance by salaried relatives 19 18
  Networks Associations and self-help groups 48 46
Businesses/trade Eco-tourism related 13 12
Others 29 28
  1. a Olokerii enclosures were not part of citations but a critical observation made during field surveys
  2. bCharcoal making was officially banned in the GR in 2009