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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 3 Status of use and change indicators of protected kraal piosphere

From: Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda

Use and change indicators Distance outward from the piosphere Overall average
25 m 50 m 75 m 100 m
Litter cover (%)
 Very low 33.3 45.5 33.3 25.0 34.3
 Low 66.7 54.5 66.7 75.0 65.7
Trampling intensity (%)
 Overall trampling intensity 100 100 90 75 91.3
 High 0 0 10 25 8.7
 Very high 100 100 90 75 91.3
Soil surface hardness (%)
 Hard 27.3 27.3 33.3 41.7 32.4
 Very hard 63.6 63.6 58.3 50.0 58.9
 Loose 9.1 9.1 8.3 8.3 8.7
Percent exposure   80.6 85.2 83.9 78.3
Plant height (m) 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.0 100
  1. Erosion signs, rills, gullies, litter dams and pedestals were present in all the protected kraals