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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Status of use and change indicators of waterhole piosphere

From: Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda

Use and change indicators Distance outward from the piosphere Overall average
25 m 50 m 75 m 100 m
Litter cover (%)
 Very low 63.6 61.3 51.5 50.0 56.6
 Low 27.3 32.3 42.4 38.2 35.0
 Moderately low 9.1 6.5 6.1 11.8 8.3
Trampling intensity (%)
 Overall trampling intensity 69.5 64.5 63.7 52.9 62.7
 Very low 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Low 16.1 0.0 3.2 11.8 7.8
 Moderately low 6.5 19.4 12.9 73.5 28.1
 High 67.7 74.2 74.2 14.7 57.7
 Very high 9.7 6.5 9.7 0.0 6.5
Soil surface hardness (%)
 Soft 11.8 33.3 25.8 23.5 23.6
 Moderately soft 8.8 3.3 6.5 5.9 6.1
 Hard 14.7 13.3 9.7 17.6 13.8
 Very hard 20.6 23.3 16.1 11.8 18.0
 Loose 44.1 26.7 41.9 41.2 38.5
Erosion signs (%)
 Present 93.9 75.8 87.1 88.2 86.3
 Not present 6.1 24.2 12.9 11.8 13.7
Rills (%)      
 Present 69.7 21.2 29.0 35.3 39.1
 Not 30.3 78.8 67.7 64.7 60.9
Gullies (%)
 Present 24.2 21.2 24.2 35.3 26.4
 Not present 75.8 78.8 74.2 64.7 73.6
Litter dams (%)
 Present 30.3 24.2 24.2 35.3 28.6
 Not present 69.7 75.8 74.2 64.7 71.4
Pedestals (%)     
 Present 18.2 12.9 9.7 20.6 15.3
 Not present 81.8 87.1 90.3 79.4 84.7
 Percent exposure 70.2 63.1 64.7 64.9 65.7
 Plant height (m) 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.7