Herd

Grazing area where the herd is managed

Pastoral herd (0) periurban herd (1)

Categorical, dummy

Proploss

Proportional loss

Proportion of female calves lost relative to female calves born

$\left(\frac{\mathrm{Total}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{number}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{lost}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}}{\mathrm{Total}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{number}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{born}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}}\right)$

Agec

Age class of heifer at the time of loss

1 = preweaning <3 months; 2 = yearling, three to two years; 3 = three years; 4 = four years; 5 = age at first calving

Categorical

Reason

Reason that led to loss of heifer

Involuntary losses: 1 = death from diseases, 2 = death from predation/injury/poisoning, 3 = deaths from drought starvation, 4 = infertility/deformities, 5 = theft/rustling, 6 = voluntary losses (slaughtered for ceremonies, gift out, leased, dowry payment)

Categorical

Mktdist

Market distance

Distance to the nearest market: 0 = not far, 1 = far, 2 = moderately far, 3 = very far, 4 = extremely far

Ordinal measure, Likert scale rating by camel herd owners

Veterinary

Access to veterinary interventions

Frequency of treatment of camel calves against diseases: 0 = None, 1 = less frequently, 2 = fairly frequently (average), 3 = frequently, 4 = more frequently

Ordinal, Likert scale rating by camel herd owners

Herd

Gazing area where the herd is managed

Pastoral herd (0) periurban herd (1)

Categorical, dummy

Security

Security situation for keeping camels

0 = not secured, 1 = fairly secured, 2 = secured, 3 = more secured, 4 = highly secured

Categorical

Train

Attendance to trainings/workshops/seminars on camel calf management

No = 1 and 0 otherwise

Categorical, dummy

Labour

Labour used in carrying out camel management activities

Hired = 1 and 0 otherwise

Categorical, dummy

Herd size

Herd size

Mature bulls

The total number of camels for the categories in column 3

Young bulls

Breeding females

Heifers

Male calves

Female calves

Educ

Level of education

Informal

Likert scale

Primary

Technical after primary

Secondary

Post secondary

Supplement

Supplementary feeding/grazing reserves

No = 1 and 0 otherwise

Categorical, dummy
