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# Table 1
**Description and measurement of variables used in the study**

Variable acronym | Variable meaning | Variable description | Variable measurement |
---|---|---|---|

Herd | Grazing area where the herd is managed | Pastoral herd (0) peri-urban herd (1) | Categorical, dummy |

Proploss | Proportional loss | Proportion of female calves lost relative to female calves born | \left(\frac{\mathrm{Total}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{number}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{lost}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}}{\mathrm{Total}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{number}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{born}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}}\right) |

Agec | Age class of heifer at the time of loss | 1 = pre-weaning <3 months; 2 = yearling, three to two years; 3 = three years; 4 = four years; 5 = age at first calving | Categorical |

Reason | Reason that led to loss of heifer | Involuntary losses: 1 = death from diseases, 2 = death from predation/injury/poisoning, 3 = deaths from drought starvation, 4 = infertility/deformities, 5 = theft/rustling, 6 = voluntary losses (slaughtered for ceremonies, gift out, leased, dowry payment) | Categorical |

Mktdist | Market distance | Distance to the nearest market: 0 = not far, 1 = far, 2 = moderately far, 3 = very far, 4 = extremely far | Ordinal measure, Likert scale rating by camel herd owners |

Veterinary | Access to veterinary interventions | Frequency of treatment of camel calves against diseases: 0 = None, 1 = less frequently, 2 = fairly frequently (average), 3 = frequently, 4 = more frequently | Ordinal, Likert scale rating by camel herd owners |

Herd | Gazing area where the herd is managed | Pastoral herd (0) peri-urban herd (1) | Categorical, dummy |

Security | Security situation for keeping camels | 0 = not secured, 1 = fairly secured, 2 = secured, 3 = more secured, 4 = highly secured | Categorical |

Train | Attendance to trainings/workshops/seminars on camel calf management | No = 1 and 0 otherwise | Categorical, dummy |

Labour | Labour used in carrying out camel management activities | Hired = 1 and 0 otherwise | Categorical, dummy |

Herd size | Herd size | Mature bulls | The total number of camels for the categories in column 3 |

Young bulls | |||

Breeding females | |||

Heifers | |||

Male calves | |||

Female calves | |||

Educ | Level of education | Informal | Likert scale |

Primary | |||

Technical after primary | |||

Secondary | |||

Post secondary | |||

Supplement | Supplementary feeding/grazing reserves | No = 1 and 0 otherwise | Categorical, dummy |