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Table 2 Summary of two-way ANOVAs for grazer effects on species richness and evenness and on species composition for Bray-Curtis index and Sørensen index in Spiti region, northern India

From: Comparing the effects of livestock and native herbivores on plant production and vegetation composition in the Trans-Himalayas

Variable Factor df SS MS F P
Species Richness (2005) Grazing 1 0.75 0.75 0.13 0.71
  Herbivore type 1 184.01 184.01 33.36 <0.001
  Interaction 1 0.19 0.19 0.03 0.85
  Error 44 242.71 5.51   
Species Richness (2008) Grazing 1 17.52 17.52 10.06 0.003
  Herbivore type 1 1.80 1.80 1.03 0.31
  Interaction 1 2.07 2.07 1.19 0.28
  Error 44 76.58 1.74   
Evenness (2005) Grazing 1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.96
  Herbivore type 1 0.26 0.26 25.52 <0.001
  Interaction 1 0.01 0.01 0.91 0.34
  Error 44 0.46 0.01   
Evenness (2008) Grazing 1 0.01 0.01 1.41 0.24
  Herbivore type 1 0.05 0.05 7.46 0.01
  Interaction 1 0.01 0.01 0.27 0.60
  Error 44 0.27 0.01   
Bray-Curtis dissimilarity Herbivore type 1 0.01 0.01 0.66 0.42
  Time 1 0.21 0.21 14.81 <0.001
  Interaction 1 0.17 0.17 11.97 <0.001
  Error 44 0.62 0.01   
Sørensen dissimilarity Herbivore type 1 0.02 0.02 1.18 0.29
  Time 1 0.19 0.19 14.41 <0.001
  Interaction 1 0.22 0.22 16.77 <0.001
  Error 44 0.58 0.01   
  1. df, degrees of freedom; SS, sum of squares; MS, mean squares.