Relationship between grazer effects on NAP (a), or plant biomass (b), and initial species richness. Relationship between plant community change as the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (c) or as the Sørensen dissimilarity (d) and initial species richness in the Spiti region of northern India. While the change in NAP was positively related to species richness (a), the change in plant biomass (b) was not related. Both measures of plant community change (c, d) were negatively related to species richness. Areas used by native herbivores are shown as black symbols, while areas used by livestock are grey. Solid lines, when shown, represent the linear relationship between variables.