Potential autocorrelation between grazer effects on NAP, or plant biomass, and plant community change. The potential autocorrelation (measured as the Bray-Curtis or Sørensen index) was due to the incidental background effects of an underlying soil moisture gradient (VWC) in the Spiti region of northern India. While the change in NAP was weakly related to soil moisture (a), change in plant biomass (b) and community change (c, d) were unrelated to soil moisture. Areas used by native herbivores are shown as black symbols, while areas used by livestock are grey. Solid lines, when shown, represent the linear relationship between variables.