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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 2 Context of wildlife-related and other income streams

From: Pastoralist livelihoods and wildlife revenues in East Africa: a case for coexistence?

Site Protected area Conservation/ eco-tourism project Non-farm Crop and livestock
Mara Maasai Mara NR earns $15 to $20 million pa Numerous conservancy/ WA/tourism operations; 64% of hh earn from wildlife, which averages >20% mean annual income   Richest site in livestock; commercial cultivation/land leasing declining
Kitengela Nairobi NP KILA operates leaseback to keep rangeland unfenced; 14% of hh get ca 3% mean income this way Urban effect: Land values > Kshs 100,000/acre Off farm opportunities; urban market for milk (1/3 livestock-related income) and crops
Population times 2.5 from 1989 to 1999
Amboseli Amboseli NP/NR Numerous small tourism operations bring little to outer, drier group ranches   Wetlands converted to intensive production; dry land cropping is risky
Longido None, but ringed by protected areas Enduimet WMA sets aside majority of land for seven villages: State captures returns, negligible trickledown Poorer hh rely on (limited) wage opportunities for food and to rebuild herds Poorest site
Farming essential; livestock are few but central
Tarangire Tarangire and Manyara NPs = 13% area; $4.5 million pa gate fees, $0.5 million hunting revenues Emboreet CBC; Manyara Ranch 35% of hh get mining-related remittances; 45% respondents have been involved in mining Mechanised maize cultivation initially tenure strategy, now for commercial profit
Ongoing conflict:Sachedina (2008)
  1. CBC community-based conservation, hh household, KILA Kitengela landowners' association, NP national park, NR national reserve, TLU Tropical livestock unit, WA wildlife association (Kenya), WMA wildlife management area (Tanzania).