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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Phases in the political economy of wildlife

From: The economics and institutional economics of wildlife on private land in Africa

Phase Features
1. Pre-modern economy · Use is limited by ability/costs of harvesting
2. Frontier economy · Costs of harvesting greatly reduced by technology.
· Profits increased by markets.
· But few rules or norms to control use
3. Wildlife is nationalized · Control of wildlife centralized in the state
· Commercial use greatly restricted
4. Sustainable use approach · Use of wildlife devolved to landholders (and later, to communities)
  · Commercial uses encouraged