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Research, Policy and Practice

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Table 1 Services provided and benefits received by the partners in an expanded co-management model

From: Pastoralists and wildlife conservation in western China: collaborative management within protected areas on the Tibetan Plateau

  Actions taken by communities; of benefit to conservation authorities Actions taken by conservation authorities; of benefit to communities
Direct contributions Wildlife monitoring, anti-poaching patrols, environmental awareness-raising activities, etc. Payment for services rendered
Sustainable land use, cf. maintenance of ecosystem services/function Payment for Ecosystem Services or various forms of eco-compensation, to be delivered directly to local communities
Supportive actions Local governance - development of local decision-making and financing tools or mechanisms (e.g. herders' cooperatives, trust funds, etc.), which may assist in the development of new economic ventures (e.g. community-based ecotourism) Regulatory - development of a clear legal framework (e.g. for community-based ecotourism in protected areas, public-private partnerships, etc.), which could assist in the creation of new alternative livelihood options