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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Services provided and benefits received by the partners in an expanded co-management model

From: Pastoralists and wildlife conservation in western China: collaborative management within protected areas on the Tibetan Plateau


Actions taken by communities; of benefit to conservation authorities

Actions taken by conservation authorities; of benefit to communities

Direct contributions

Wildlife monitoring, anti-poaching patrols, environmental awareness-raising activities, etc.

Payment for services rendered

Sustainable land use, cf. maintenance of ecosystem services/function

Payment for Ecosystem Services or various forms of eco-compensation, to be delivered directly to local communities

Supportive actions

Local governance - development of local decision-making and financing tools or mechanisms (e.g. herders' cooperatives, trust funds, etc.), which may assist in the development of new economic ventures (e.g. community-based ecotourism)

Regulatory - development of a clear legal framework (e.g. for community-based ecotourism in protected areas, public-private partnerships, etc.), which could assist in the creation of new alternative livelihood options