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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 3 Summary of tentative trade-offs related to scenarios

From: Users or producers of ecosystem services? A scenario exercise for integrating conservation and reindeer herding in northeast Finland

Scenario A) Traditional reindeer herding Scenario C) Compensated ecosystem service producer
Gainers: Gainers:
-Pastoralist's home economics -Manageability of predator and semi-domesticated reindeer
-Predator populations (easy prey) -Continuing local herding communities
-Semi-domesticated reindeer's instincts and survivability (continuous predation pressure) -Incentivized motive for reindeer management
  -Natural grazing pressure simulations
Losers: Losers:
-State (high compensations costs) -State (high costs of incentives)
-Traditional food for humans production motive -Predator watching enterprises (payments for herders for increasing predation)
-Motive for reindeer management (changes to searching of killed reindeer) -Traditional food for humans production motive
-Predators hunting instinct and skills -Natural dynamics of hunting pressure
Scenario B) Reindeer farming Scenario D) Transformed professions
Gainers: Gainers:
-Traditional food for humans production motive -Manageability, stability and commodification of local environment
-Agricultural investment economy (rising costs of production, but steady harvest) -Wild forest reindeer population
  -Local and semi-local conformists (educated, probably young opportunists)
  -Municipal economies
Losers: Losers:
-Domesticated reindeer meat quality -Traditionalists (local conservatives not willing for modern occupations)
-Domesticated reindeer's instincts and survivability -Nature's uncontrolled dynamics
-Predator populations (loss of easy prey) -Traditional local culture and communities
-Reindeer herders' socio-cultural traditions and freedom of choice regarding their livelihood.