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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Examples of ecosystem services (see Constanza et al. 1997; De Groot et al. 2002; MA 2005; Stenger et al. 2009) and indicators used in our case study

From: Users or producers of ecosystem services? A scenario exercise for integrating conservation and reindeer herding in northeast Finland

Ecosystem services Indicators used in the case study
Supporting:  
Soil formation, primary production, nutrient cycling  
Regulating  
Population and keystone species control through trophic-dynamic relations, stabilising species balance. -Balance between wolves, reindeer, wild forest reindeer, and moose.
Enhancing the reproduction of important species by suitable living and reproduction habitats. -Estimation of the predator / wolf densities in the reindeer pastures and habitats.
  The availability of prey animals for predators.
Improving species resistance to disturbances e.g. by maintaining gene pools and viability of species populations. -Ability of wolves to move across borders and exchange genes with different sub-populations.
  -Estimation whether the number of wolves will increase or decrease.
Provisioning  
Primary production of extractable, which are utilised in hunting, gathering, herding, berry picking etc. -Estimation of number of reindeer that ecosystem sustains.
  -Estimation about the amount of lichen reindeer can utilise.
Sociocultural -The availability of assumingly attractive landscapes and activities within those.
Environments and landscapes that support ecotourism, recreation and outdoor activities.  
Existence of utilisable or otherwise valued species. -The availability of assumingly attractive species (e.g. predators, but also reindeer).