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Research, Policy and Practice

Table 1 Examples of ecosystem services (see Constanza et al. 1997; De Groot et al. 2002; MA 2005; Stenger et al. 2009) and indicators used in our case study

From: Users or producers of ecosystem services? A scenario exercise for integrating conservation and reindeer herding in northeast Finland

Ecosystem services Indicators used in the case study
Soil formation, primary production, nutrient cycling  
Population and keystone species control through trophic-dynamic relations, stabilising species balance. -Balance between wolves, reindeer, wild forest reindeer, and moose.
Enhancing the reproduction of important species by suitable living and reproduction habitats. -Estimation of the predator / wolf densities in the reindeer pastures and habitats.
  The availability of prey animals for predators.
Improving species resistance to disturbances e.g. by maintaining gene pools and viability of species populations. -Ability of wolves to move across borders and exchange genes with different sub-populations.
  -Estimation whether the number of wolves will increase or decrease.
Primary production of extractable, which are utilised in hunting, gathering, herding, berry picking etc. -Estimation of number of reindeer that ecosystem sustains.
  -Estimation about the amount of lichen reindeer can utilise.
Sociocultural -The availability of assumingly attractive landscapes and activities within those.
Environments and landscapes that support ecotourism, recreation and outdoor activities.  
Existence of utilisable or otherwise valued species. -The availability of assumingly attractive species (e.g. predators, but also reindeer).