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Table 1 Modern variation in air temperature and annual precipitation recorded at GNIP stations along and around the Eurasian steppe [data from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database (IAEA/WMO 2006)].

From: Some like it hot: environmental determinism and the pastoral economies of the later prehistoric Eurasian steppe

        air temperature precipitation
   GNIP station country longitude latitude altitude (m) min (°C) 1 max (°C) 1 mean (°C) 2 (mm) 2
western region north Odessa Ukraine 30.63 46.48 64 -9.8 34.4 9.4 350
   Har'kov Ukraine 36.28 49.93 148 -14.4 22.5 9.4 350
   Saratov Russia 46.03 51.56 166 -15.8 24.8 6.8 462
  south Tbilisi Georgia 44.95 41.68 490 -8.1 30 13.4 521
   Batumi Georgia 41.63 41.65 6 3.8 27.1 14.6 2486
eastern region north Omsk Russia 73.38 55.01 94 -24.1 21.1 1.9 404
   Novosibirsk Russia 82.9 55.03 162 -24.8 20.7 1.3 422
   Enisejsk Russia 92.15 58.45 98 -29.6 19.8 -1.2 491
  south Tashkent Ukbekistan 69.27 41.27 428 -13.4 28.9 13.3 455
   Wulumuqi China 87.62 43.78 918 -15.7 29.8 7.9 263
  east Ulaanbaatar Mongolia 106.98 47.93 1338 -31.9 20.8 0.1 255
  1. The GNIP stations have been divided into western and eastern regions, according to their longitudinal position in relation to the Ural Mountains, and then into groups within these regions according to their position. (No data for Kazakhstan).
  2. Notes:
  3. 1- minima and maxima of seasonal temperature variation (not from the same years, as different periods of time sampled for the different sites)
  4. 2- long term means